Primary sources

“Blind children in a schoolroom reading braille”. September 3, 1912. State Library of
           (accessed Dec 7, 2009)
          Shows blind children at a school for the blind learning Braille. Used in our effects on education page.

“Blind woman seated at a table, using Braille typewriter”. ca. 1890-ca. 1900. State
           Library of Victoria.
           aab22907/1/mp011857 (accessed Dec 7, 2009)
            Shows a blind woman using a special Braille typewriter. Used in our effects on communication page.

“Braille typewriters”. ca. 1890-ca. 1912. State Library of Victoria.
  (accessed Dec 7, 2009) 
           Shows 2 different devices used to write Braille. Useful to see what came after the slate and stylus.

Chris Coulter. Interview. Rose Hinson and Sayaka Yamamoto. Dec 9, 2009
            Email interview with woman who has been blind since birth. Gave us firsthand accounts of how useful braille is. Used for background information and quote.

“Hebron Blind School” Ca. 1910. National Library of Australia.
           an23816015 (accessed Jan 2, 2010).
          Shows up close view 2 blind students, one reading braille and one writing in it. Shows how braille was used for communication.

Illingworth, W. H. History of the education of the blind. London: S. Low, Marston &
          company, ltd., 1910. (accessed Dec 2, 2009)
            In depth history of education for the blind. Discusses the effect Braille had on education for the blind. Useful in  our effects on education of the blind page.

Mellor, Michael. Louis Braille: a Touch of Genius. Boston: National Braille
          Press, 2006.
          Includes primary source letters from Braille himself to various officials. The letters are about the way he had revised Braille and some inventions he made pertaining to Braille.

Standard Type For Blind”.  The New York Times, Jul 14, 1918, Sunday.      
         /gst/abstract.html?res=9E06E0D6173EE433A25757C1A9619C946996D6CF (accessed November 10, 2009).
            Newspaper article about how the American Association for the blind finally accepted Braille as a standard type of print for the blind. Includes useful dates for our timeline.

“Students in classroom reading braille, Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind”. ca. 1890 -
          ca. 1912. State Library of Victoria. (accessed Dec 7, 2009)
           Shows students at the Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind learning braille.

Wilder, Laura Ingalls. These Happy Golden Years. New York: Harper Trophy, 1943.
            Autobiography of a woman whose sister was blind. Discusses a college for the blind in Iowa, and devices used to write in Braille.

Secondary sources

“Benefits of Braille” National Braille press.
    (accessed Jan 6, 2010)
             Lists benefits of learning braille if you are blind. Useful in our education page.

 “Braille” Duxbury Systems Inc. (accessed
             November 9, 2009)
             Basic biography of Louis Braille, and very detailed description of the Braille system. Useful in our home page when explaining how braille works.

“Braille Alphabet Chart” Division of Blind Services.
           <> (Dec 10, 2009)
            Image Showing what each letter looks like in braille. Used on our home page.

"Braille, Before and After” NCBI. <
           (Dec 7, 2009)
           Discusses different types of braille, and dates of when braille spread across the world. Useful for background info in our timeline.

"Braille Printer/Embosser in action" June 28, 2009. Online video clip. You Tube. <
          /watch?v=6gWWl3f278s&feature=related> (accessed Feb 1, 2010).

          Video clip of a modern braille printer in action. Enforces out point on the society page that braille is still used today.

“Braille Typewriter” Early Office Museum.
             <> (accessed
           Dec 2, 2009)
Image of a braille typewriter. Used as our header image on every page.

"Education of the Blind." New Advent.
            <>. (accessed Jan 3, 2010)
            Large source on everything from history of blind education to statistics of blind people in different countries. Used for general background info.

"Facts about Sight Loss and Definitions of Blindness” Braille Institute of America.
          <> (accessed Dec 3, 2009)
            Lists statistics of braille literacy rates and % of literate blind people with jobs. We used this source in our effects on society page.

          Freedman, Russell. Out of Darkness. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
            Discusses childhood and what it was like to grow up blind in the time period. Good background info source.

"Helen Keller's Speech at the Sorbonne Honoring Louis Braille” American Foundation for the Blind.
            <>. (accessed Dec 13, 2009)
Shows text version of Helen Keller’s speech about Louis Braille. We quoted this in our home page.

Hampshire, Barry. Working With Braille. Lausanne: Unesco, 1981.
            Discusses the advantages of Braille from a teacher’s point of view, and how Braille is used in education of the blind. Discusses why Braille is so much better than any of the previous systems.

“Invention of Braille” Royal New Zealand Foundation of the Blind.
           <> (accessed October 14,

           Discusses overall reaction to Braille’s system, by officials, the blind, and the rest of the world.

"Jim Fiebig quotes" Think Exist. <> (Jan 30, 2010).
            Provided useful quote for our home page.

Lowenfeld, Berthold. The Changing Status of The Blind. Springfield: Thomas, 1975.
            Discusses inventions leading up to the invention of Braille (not only by Barbier, but also by Lana). Useful in  our timeline.

“Louis Braille” <> (accessed
               Nov 28, 2009)
           Image of Louis Braille used on our Louis Braille page.

Meyer, Carolyn. “A New Method: The Story of Louis Braille” Louis Braille School.
   (accessed October 18, 2009)
            Detailed 7-page biography of Louis Braille. Covers everything from his home and family, to his invention of Braille, to his late teaching career. Useful on our Louis Braille page and our timeline page.

O’Connor, Barbra. The World at His Fingertips: A Story about Louis Braille.
          Minneapolis: the Lerner Publishing Group, 1997.
            Talks about his life and surroundings growing up. Also shows his success in creating Braille. Good background info.

Phillips, Gordon. The Blind in British Society. Hampshire: Gordon Phillips, 2004.
            Gives statistics and numbers of blind people in Britain at the time.

"Reading and Writing” American Foundation for the Blind.
          (Dec 12, 2009)
         Talks about how literacy is necessary in day to day life, and how braille helps blind people be literate. Helped reinforce out effects on education page.

Roblin, Jean. The Reading Fingers. New York: American Foundation for the Blind, 1955.
             DocumentID=4554 (accessed November 10, 2009)

            The first authoritative biography about Louis Braille was written in French in 1951 to commemorate the centennial of Louis Braille's death. Translated to English later. Useful in our Louis Braille page.

“The Story of Braille” Valley Braille Service, Inc. (accessed October 17, 2009).
        Discusses previous invention by Charles Barbier and explains how Braille adapted it.

Stuckey, Ken. “History of the Education of the Blind”
(accessed Dec 1, 2009)
       Discusses the history of education of the blind. Used in our education page. Provided good quotes.